1999 Banquet held at CJs East
The MAS 1999 Spring Banquet was held April 9th at CJs East. About 35 members and friends of the MAS attended the banquet and enjoyed a wonderful stuffed chicken and prime rib dinner.
Lamaye and Pertzborn recognized
After the meal, UW Astronomy professor Sanjay Lamaye and Space Science and Engineering outreach specialist Rosalyn Pertzborn were awarded the Madison Astronomical Society's Education and Outreach award for 1998. Both recipients were present at the dinner and gave a brief word of thanks to the group. Sanjay and Rosalyn were tireless in their efforts to organize the 1998 Department of Planetary Sciences convention at the Monona Terrace Convention Center in October of last year. This convention was a stunning success not only for scientists, who came from all over the world to hear and present research papers, but also for Wisconsin school children, who came from all over the state to see the wonderful exhibits of aerospace companies from around the nation.
Dr. Churchwell keynote speaker
The banquet's keynote speaker was Dr. Edward Churchwell of the UW-Madison astronomy department. Dr. Churchwell presented information on the next generation radio telescope array currently planned for construction in Chile during the next 8 to 10 years. This "millimeter to submillimeter array" will do for the millimeter and submillimeter bands what HST and Keck did for optical astronomy and the VLA did for radio astronomy.
What does this mean? Unlike conventional radio telescopes, which focus on synchroton radiation, the millimeter array (MMA) will specialize in the 1 cm to 350 micron bands, focusing on thermal radiation from interstellar dust and gas. The wavelength range extends into the infrared spectrum, making it very important that the array be located in as ideal a viewing location as possible. Fortunately, Llano de Chajnantor, Chile provides just such a site. At an altitude of over 16,000 feet above sea level, this Andean plain is located near San Pedro de Atacama. At submillimeter wavelengths, water vapor and oxygen are major obstacles to atmospheric clarity. The conditions at Llano de Chajnantor seem to be significantly better than those at Mauna Kea, and are comparable to those at the South Pole, where some single dish millimeter astronomical research is being done. So that scientists and operators can breathe, a base-camp will be established at Atacama which is about 8000 feet above sea level..
The current plan calls for over sixty 12-meter dish antennas arranged in a movable array, capable of achieving resolutions better than 0.1 second of arc. The MMA's sensitivity to CO emissions will revolutionize the study of galactic evolution, searches for planet formation around distant stars, and even study of individual stars - an area in which conventional radio astronomy has been of only limited use thus far. Due to the MMA's focus on thermal radiation, it will be able to image dust in galaxies out to a redshift of 10 with no problem, according to Dr. Churchwell.
For more information on the web, see the MMA project website.
From the Observatory Director
Thanks to Ray Zit and Tom Jacobs,who repaired the roll-off for the 17" this past May 15th. It is working smoothly again. Dave Weier and Wynn Wacker were also present to provide much needed physical labor.
The directions for closing up the 11" building have now been modified. People should not stand on the ladder to pull the shutter closed, but rather push it closed with the stick from outside. A better long-term solution is being prepared.
Please don't leave any garbage or trash at the YRS. Food wrappers, empty cans and bottles and food leavings attract insects and vermin (this has already happened). Even basic trash - paper, inedible junk, hardware packaging, etc. - presents a problem since the YRS has no trash or garbage pickup. The emphatic rule is just like at the state parks - whatever you bring in, you take out.
- Tim Ellestad
Dr. Valley addresses group on Martian meteorite research
At the regular meeting May 14, 1999, Dr. John Valley of the UW Madison Geology Department gave a talk on the current status of research on the Martian meteorites found at Allen Hills in Antarctica. The issue as to whether they provide evidence for ancient life on Mars is far more complex than microscopic pictures of little worm-like structures. Those widely published photos are actually the weakest link in the complex chain of evidence supporting the claim of biological activity (the structures in the photos are believed to be too small to have ever contained the chemical constituents of life).
Delving deep into mineralogical findings of the meteorites, Valley showed that the key to the puzzle is the temperature range that accompanied the formation of the structures found within the rocks. If the temperatures were too high (as in volcanic origins) then no life could have existed. His research appears to be lending some support to the view that the temperature range could have been low enough to support life forms. It's a far cry from definitive proof, but Valley says that anyone who forms iron-clad conclusions, pro or con, on the basis of currently available data is making unsupported leaps.
Deep Sky Notebook: Ophiuchus Globular Clusters
By Tom Brissette
Welcome to the new version of my deep sky column. It will now focus on a single constellation (or several small ones), or a specific theme. As before, only objects that I have personally observed and recorded will be included, so it won't be a complete guide to everything in a featured area.
gc M12 Oph 16h 47m 15s -01deg 56' 54" Size: 14' Mag: 6.1 Ura 246
Distance: 20,000 l.y. Diameter: 81 l.y.
8" f/6: Mod-large, bright globular. 116x shows strongly concentrated, dense core, slight oval shape; partially resolved, inner region is a very granular haze. A few short outlier chains; three brighter stars form triangle, base centered on core, pointing E.
gc M10 Oph 16h 57m 09s -04deg 06' 00" Size: 19' Mag: 6.6 Ura 247
Distance: 20,000 l.y. Diameter: 87 l.y.
8" f/6: Large, bright companion to M12, lies 3.3 degrees SE. 116x ep shows round, moderately concentrated core, mostly resolved, though rather dense. Many long outlier chains.
gc M62 Oph 17h 01m 13s -30deg 06' 42" Size: 11' Mag: 6.4 Ura 376
Distance: 26,000 l.y. Diameter: 106 l.y.
8" f/4.5: Only moderately bright, visible in finder. At 116x, large, very bright, granular core with an unresolved brighter, inner core spot. Faint, mostly unresolved outlier halo of small size. 16" f/19: At 172x, outer core resolved into very faint stars; brighter inner core not resolved. A few outliers seen, forming a thin halo.
gc M107 Oph 16h 32m 32s -13deg 03' 41" Size: 11' Mag: 7.8 Ura 291
Distance: 10,000 l.y Diameter: 29 l.y.
8" f/6: Small globular, 116x shows a compact, very granular round patch in center of a kite-shaped pattern of stars (all around mag 7). Averted vision shows a tiny halo of faint outliers. 17" f/4.5: 160x resolves a few core stars; core is dense, still mostly very granular. Outlier halo more extensive, but still small.
gc NGC 6235 Oph 16h 53m 25s -22deg 10' 36" Size: 5' Mag: 8.9 Ura 337
8" f/6: 98x shows a tiny, faint granular-hazy round spot in a triangle of faint stars. Unresolved, no outliers visible, brighter spot in center core. 17" f/4.5: At 160x, a little larger in visible size, but still tiny. A few stars of outer core seen; rest of cluster is very granular.
gc NGC 6517 Oph 18h 01m 51s -08deg 57' 30" Size: 3.3' Mag: 10.1 Ura 294
8" f/6: Faint gc, but visible at 52x. 116x shows a tiny round faint halo haze with an almost stellar brighter core.
gc NGC 6325 Oph 17h 17m 59s -23deg 46' 00s Size: 3.9' Mag: 10.2 Ura 337
8" f/6: Not visible in finder, almost invisible at 52x. Appears at 92x as a very faint, low surface brightness round hazy spot with a possible stellar central spot. 16" f/19: At 172x, brighter, still unresolved; granular appearance. Weakly concentrated in middle.
gc NGC 6401 Oph 17h 38m 37s -23deg 54' 30" Size: 4.4' Mag: 7.4 Ura 338
8" f/6: 116x shows a tiny, low surface brightness nebulous patch; unresol;ved. Mag 12 star on SE edge. 16" f/19: Still unresolved at 172x, indefinite granular appearance. Possible tiny core, slightly elongated.
Deep Sky Challenge
This is a new feature of the column, a separate place where I'm going to put the tough ones. I'd love to get reports of any observations made of these objects; I might even make this a contest. :-) Usually the objects will be in the featured constellation, but not always, as is the case this issue.
gc NGC 6749 Aql 19h 05m 15s +01deg 54' 06" Size: 6.3' Mag: 12.4 Ura 251
Located only a few degrees from the galactic equator in Aquila, this is a heavily obscured globular. It actually might not be too much of a challenge, but when I tried to observe it on 6-30-98 with my 11" Dob, it was not visible at all, even in a 4.8mm Nagler (262x)
Madison School District Observatory Sees First Light
Last fall, Ben Senson of the Madison Metropolitan School District stopped by an MAS regular meeting to announce an exciting project underway to further astronomy in education. Through grants and board of education funding, MMSD is building a first class observatory south of Verona in the school forest. The finished product will have a 14" Celestron SCT with an ST-7 CCD camera and be fully remote controllable. Considerable interest was expressed in this project by MAS members at the time.
Construction proceeded all fall and winter, and now in the last few weeks, the pieces have all come together and the big scope has finally seen first light. The image below of M51 (sans NGC 5195) was taken early on the morning of May 19 with a 210-second exposure. It is shown here very lightly processed. For first light, everyone was very pleased with the result and excited about the prospects of future observations once the telescope mount has been fully "trained" and aligned (only rough polar alignment has been done thus far).
Once the scope goes online, MMSD faculty and students who have been trained will be able to log on to the telescope (using Software Bisque's The Sky, CCDSoft, and RASClient software) and direct the scope from any computer connected to the internet. TDSTelecom generously donated the software for placement in every branch of the Madison Public Library system and 20 copies for check out by members of the MMSD Young Astronomer's Club. In addition to scheduled live observing sessions, teachers and students will be able to request images via email/phone/letter that will be acquired by the observatory "automatically" on the next clear night. These images can then be downloaded by anyone. All in all, the MMSD Observatory is shaping up to be a most impressive instrument. MAS members beware: once the observatory goes into wide use, there will be a need for project mentors. Projects could include supernova/asteroid search team, variable star team, planetary observing team, star party team, etc.
Look for a full report on this facility in a future issue of Capitol Skies. Look for more info at the Observatory website.
A note from the editor
This is my first issue as your new Capitol Skies editor. Foremost, I want to thank Dick Greiner for the wonderful job he has done on this newsletter these past two years. As with all his many contributions to the club, Doc gave the newsletter a personal and much appreciated touch of class and professionalism.
As you can see from the current effort, I've made a few stylistic changes but otherwise, I will endeavor to keep the content club-related and timely. Above all, I'd like to emphasize to all reading this, that your contributions are essential. Consider writing an article about a special interest you have, or submitting your notes from a recent observing session. All it takes to be a writer is the desire to share something of yourself with others.
For the past half-year, I have written a regular column for the Madison school district's planetarium newsletter. This column is targeted at school-age kids who attend planetarium programs and their parents (most of whom are interested in astronomy, but of novice skill level). While I have published a few of those articles in Capitol Skies, the readers of this newsletter are, in general, a bit more experienced than the planetarium readers. I want this newsletter to reflect your interests and pursuits. Submissions of any kind and your comments are always welcomed.
By John P. Martin
Two years ago the motion picture Contact hit the screens and captured the imaginations of millions. Based upon Carl Sagan's best selling novel and with him serving as technical supervisor, the movie traces the life journey of Ellie Arroway (Jodie Foster) as she searches the heavens for that elusive radio signal that would signify that we are not alone in the universe. One scene in the movie is at the Arecibo Radio Telescope in Puerto Rico. On screen we see Ellie sitting with a pair of earphones patiently listening for a pattern in the static.
While this was a concession to the movie audience, in reality it requires massive amounts of computing power to sift through the raw data that is collected (over 35 gigs per day). To process this data would require the full-time resources of a supercomputer or hundreds of thousands of personal computers. Since the people at the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) cannot afford a supercomputer or warehouses full of personal computers, they have turned to the web.
The SETI@Home project allows everyone on the internet to participate in the search for ET. By downloading the SETI@Home screensaver (available for Windows, Mac, and about 30 Unix flavors) you can contribute to this scientific endeavor. The system works by downloading a small .25 meg work unit of data from Arecibo. When your computer is idle the screensaver starts and begins processing the data looking for unusual signals. As each section of data is completed the software sends the results back to the SETI project and downloads another work unit.
The screensaver is easily installed. There are options which allow it to automatically contact the SETI site (using your default dial-up) or may be set to require you to manually connect. The software displays statistics showing where and when the data was collected, how much has been processed, the processing time, and graphs of the data as it is processed.
As of Thursday, May 20, 1999 there are nearly a quarter million users of the software who have processed over 400 years of CPU time.
Instead of wasting electricity on those flying toasters and scrolling messages that dance across your screen, join the team and let the SETI Project borrow your CPU. To download SETI@Home or to read more about the project, go to the SETI@Home website. And who knows, there is always the possibility that you could share in the greatest discovery of all.
Planets of Summer
by John Rummel
The motions of seven celestial bodies perplexed ancient astronomers for thousands of years. The motion of the fixed stars was relatively well understood - they were part of the "sphere of the stars" and as such, moved in harmony with one another. The moon and the sun also had their own spheres, and thus moved independent of the stars, but still in a way that could be reliably predicted. What stumped them was the motions of the other starry wanderers - the five planets. Mercury and Venus were a natural grouping, never straying far from the sun, and displaying predictable patterns of alternately being visible before sunrise or after sunset.
What defeated early astronomers were the remaining three of these seven important bodies: Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Their movements seemed to defy all models of the universe which worked so well for the other heavenly bodies.
These three objects drifted against the backdrop of the fixed stars for awhile, following a predictable west to east motion (as measured against the backdrop of the constellations), but would seeming stop, reverse their course for awhile, stop again, and then resume easterly motion. Early astronomers invented some fairly elaborate theories to account for this apparent backward motion, but it was not fully understood until Copernicus and Galileo firmly placed the sun at the center of the solar system, and Kepler and Newton worked out the motions of the planets.
The backward, or retrograde, motion of the planets is simply caused by our uniquely Earthbound vantage point. As the Earth swings around the sun, it overtakes the more distant planets, which move about their orbits more slowly. As the Earth overtakes and passes the outer planets, they appear to move backwards for a time against the backdrop of the stars.
Since mid-March, Mars has been pursuing its retrograde (backward) path creeping closer and closer to the bright star Spica. In early June, it will reach its closest approach, reverse its path, and begin its easterly journey again. As June opens, Mars is just about 2 degrees to the upper left (northeast) of Spica. After seeming to hover in place for a few nights, it will begin to slowly move off to the left. By the end of June, it will be nearly 5 degrees to the left. By mid-July, that distance will have doubled to 10 degrees. Because of its proximity to such a bright star, its motion will be easy to observe as the summer progresses.
The other summer planet, Venus, is holding court as the brilliant evening star, fully dominating the western sky after sunset for the entire spring and summer. As June opens, Venus is entrenched in Gemini, flying in formation with bright Castor and Pollux on June 1st. As the month progresses, Venus departs Gemini and moves into the dim constellation Cancer, who's stars are tough to make until the sun is well down and the sky is very dark. Cancer is home to a wonderful binocular star cluster - M44, more popularly known as the Beehive cluster. By June 10th, Venus is just 2 degrees to the right of the Beehive. With binoculars, you should be able to make out a dense cluster of dim stars just to the left of the brilliant arc of the planet. By June 12, the planet is less than a degree away, nearly superimposing itself on top of the distant formation of stars. By the time it gets dark enough to really appreciate the view, the whole group is sinking quickly toward the western horizon, so start your viewing while the sky is still a bit dusky. With Venus as your guide, seeing the Beehive will be a lock.
If you have a telescope, watch Venus throughout June as its phase slowly changes from a half-moon to a clear crescent, and as its size continues to expand as Earth slowly overtakes it throughout June and July.
May 14, 1999 A presentation to the Madison Astronomical Society
Ad Hoc Report on the Yanna Research Station Including comments on Other Financial and Legal Matters that should be of Concern to the Madison Astronomical Society
Motion: Moved that this report be referred to the Board of Directors of the Madison Astronomical Society for discussion and that they be directed to report back to the membership with recommendations that address the issues raised in this report at the general member meeting in August 1999.
Ad Hoc Report on the Yanna Research Station Including comments on Other Financial and Legal Matters that should be of Concern to the Madison Astronomical Society
From: Tim Ellestad, Richard Goddard, R. A. Greiner and Rod Helt
Date: May 14, 1999
This report has been prepared by the above listed members of the MAS in response to their concerns about the condition of the MAS facilities at YRS and other financial and legal matters that have come up this Spring.
The Yanna Research Station, its condition upkeep and future status.
The following comments regard the present condition of the YRS site, ongoing financing of the site and future needs.
The YRS site is the major and only observing facility currently owned, operated and used by the members of the MAS. It should be cared for, utilized and funded in a manner that will keep it in good condition for future use of the general and observing members. The YRS is a significant fiscal responsibility since it absorbs a large fraction of the annual operating budget of the MAS. The approximate replacement cost of the YRS facility is $180,000.
Below we list specific issues about the condition, upkeep and repair and expected financial investments required to keep the YRS facility operational.
A primary issue is the general upkeep of the site without reference to specific buildings or equipment. The site has a large lawn and a large parking area, including a road into the parking area and a road leading to the main viewing area.
This property must be tended to by cutting the lawn and trimming of adjacent area shrubs and trees. This is normal maintenance which requires little actual cost but considerable labor. To this point we have paid to have the lawn cut and have tended to the trimming of the other areas through member labor. This procedure can and should continue. The annual cost of the work has been about $250 per year.
The road and parking lot need to be refurbished with a load of gravel. Approximately 15 yards of gravel are needed and it must be spread and leveled. The approximate cost of doing this job will be $450 for the gravel and $200 for the labor to spread the gravel. This must be done this year. This maintenance should be repeated periodically and this cost should be built into the annual maintenance budget.
The clubhouse is our major building asset at the YRS. It is in need of regular upkeep and occasional repair. Regular upkeep takes into account everything from light bulbs to paper towels and cleaning materials as well as some touch up of the interior and exterior of the building itself. An amount of $200 should be budgeted annually for supplies while the labor can be provided by the general membership.
An immediate repair needed is to replace the fascia on the building. An estimate to do this professionally has been obtained. It is $1,000. This work should be done this year with certainty.
There are some sections of the outside stucco that need repair. The cost to do this is estimated at $100 and will be done by volunteers. This work must be done this year.
A combo door should be installed on the front door. This will cost about $300 and should be added to the building this year.
The Saturn logo on the building is in total disrepair and cannot be salvaged. It should be removed.
A major concern in the next 5 to 8 years is the condition of the roof of the club house building. It is showing some normal wear and is a candidate for replacement in the next five to 8 years at a cost of about $2500. Planning to fund this expenditure should be started immediately.
A major construction issue is that of a sanitary facility at YRS. The suggestion has been made to install a holding tank and small protective building. A variance will have to be obtained from Green county to install this facility. The cost of the facility is estimated to be about $4000.
The four major viewing facilities at YRS. These have been evaluated and estimates of costs and time lines to maintain these facilities prepared as given below.
The 17" roll off structure needs immediate repair of the roll off section so that it can be used safely by more members. There is, however, a long term problem with the structure. That is, the base is rotting out. The sill plates are wicking water due to incorrect design. We should expect this structure to last 5 years at the longest. At that point, it will have to be replaced or abandoned. No specific estimate of the cost of replacement have been made at this time, but it will probably be in the neighborhood of $5000.
The 12" (RAG Observatory). Minor repairs are required which include painting of the front doors, sealing of the deck and installation of a soft stop at the rear of the building. This work will be done and paid for by Doc G.
The 11" Celestron scope building is new and in relatively good shape except for the dome. The building does need some painting of the siding. This should cost no more than $300. The dome, however, is in very bad shape and needs repairs to the shutter immediately to make it usable. If these repairs are done, it is estimated that the dome will survive for a few years. The building should be provided with a new 10' dome within about 5 years. The cost of a 10 ' Home Dome would be about $6000.
The 16" building has been worked on extensively over the past year. The work has been done by members and several generous gifts from members. The building is now sound and the dome working. The telescope has been refurbished. However, the Dome is a silo top which needs some immediate repairs in the form of sealing and painting. The cost of painting with a rubber based sealing paint will be about $450. This must be done immediately. The telescope itself will need care which might cost $200 each year.
In a longer view, if the 16" telescope is to survive, the dome must be replaced. The cost of a new dome will be approximately $15,000 or alternatively the cost of a roll roof will be about $9,000. A completely new building would cost upward of $25,000. The current dome, with quality care, might last another 5 to 8 years. At that point, a major decision will have to be made about replacing or giving up the facility.
Summary of costs of maintaining YRS over a 10 year period
Immediate: Time line and costs for the above repairs and replacements this year only with some items that carry over annually.
Annual maintenance: Lawn $250; Miscellaneous: $200; Club house Fascia: $1000; Stucco repair: $100; Storm Door: $300; Gravel for parking lot and roads $ 650; Repair of the 17" structure: Unknown; Painting of the 11" building : $300; Painting of the dome on the 16" building: $450; Sanitary facilities: $4000
Total cost of immediate and urgent projects: $7,250
Deferred costs: 5 to 10 years out
Replacement of the club house roof: $2,500; Replacement of the dome on the 11" building: $6,000; Replacement of the 17" structure: $ 5,000; Replacement of the dome or possibly the entire 16" building: $15,000 to $25,000
Total cost of replacement projects: (10 year planning horizon)
$13,000 up to $30,000 or more.
Fiscal Planning Commentary
The figures in this report are significant and sobering for the MAS. They represent a current survey with estimates made as carefully as possible, at this time, of the real costs of running an observatory site. They mean that the MAS will have to find new funding, to maintain our facilities at YRS and look for major gifts for new facilities. Without this continuing effort, the YRS will deteriorate.
It has also become clear that in recent years, only a small portion of the membership has the necessary interest, time or capability to do large construction and repair projects at YRS. Thus the above fiscal analysis assumes professional labor will be engaged.
The MAS must decide if it is interested in maintaining YRS at the current level and also if it is willing to put in the additional effort clearly required to maintain YRS as a first class observing facility for the MAS.
Other concerns relating to the operation of the MAS and information important to the general membership.
The YRS site: Buildings, Equipment and the Site Itself
An inventory of the buildings and equipment at the YRS site was prepared in the past few months. This information should be published and made available to the general membership. This information should include copies of the appropriate deeds and plat information about the site.
The Corporation: Its Status and Operation
The MAS is a non-profit corporation functioning under the laws of the state of Wisconsin. Information, including the corporate papers and annual reports to the State should be made available to the general membership. The reports must include statements of mission and purpose, a list of officers and directors and whatever else is required by law.
All such records or copies should be kept safe and secure and in a single appropriate location for inspection by the general membership. Originals of important documents should be kept in a lock box or safe deposit box available to the officers and board of directors of the Society.
Insurance Coverage for the Physical Properties and Liability Coverage
The Society must carry insurance to cover its property and liability for events it sponsors. A copy of this policy must be available to the general member ship in the same way as other documents. It is particularly important that the MAS have sufficient liability coverage since in the case of a problem at a public event sponsored by the MAS, members of the society may otherwise be held responsible.
Official Location of the MAS
The Society should have a permanent address in the form of a P.O. Box so that the location of the Society does not depend on the continuance of any one member of the Society.
All of the above suggestions are only those which are normally required of a non-profit corporation doing business in the State of Wisconsin as authorized under the laws of the State of Wisconsin and should be effected immediately.
There is currently some confusion among members about the legal status of the MAS, of its properties, its facilities and its liabilities. This situation is partly a result of a level of unresponsiveness from the officers who not only should be but are accountable to the general membership.
A particular example is the current status of the insurance that the MAS carries to cover liability at events it sponsors. It has been said that the MAS has a letter from an insurance agent that states that the MAS is covered to the extent of $1,000,000 for liability at up to 6 events which it sponsors off of the Yanna site. This is not a clear or adequate assessment of the MAS insurance coverage nor of its responsibility. A current certificate of insurance should be in our possession.
While it is true that the State of Wisconsin has indemnified officers and members of 501.c.3 organizations from personal responsibility in 1992, it is not clear that this matter has been settled in the courts.
The issue of exactly what are sponsored events is also not clear. Currently the MAS sponsors no less that 10 events off the YRS site in the form of monthly meetings at Space Place. The MAS sponsors several additional public events. This makes a total of at least twice the number of events that the insurance is rumored to cover. This is not a satisfactory situation.
The MAS is expanding outreach activities, which generate additional risk exposure, thereby exacerbating the need for thorough coverage.
The above is only one example of matters that relate to the operation of the MAS that need to be clarified to the satisfaction of the general membership. When such matters are brought up for discussion, they should be addressed and explained clearly and promptly. Another issue, for example, is the requirement by State law that a formal meeting of the board of directors be held annually, that minutes of this meeting be taken and that they be published for inspection by the general membership and submitted to appropriate authorities.
The officers have a legal and fiduciary responsibility to the membership which should be attended to with diligence. In addition, a long range plan which includes fiscal planning and maintenance of the assets of the society are necessary functions of the officers. We feel that these matters have been neglected for some time and need urgent attention.
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