Eclipse Presentations highlighted at the September meeting
Photo by Bob Breun, 1/30 second, f/10, 800mm lens, Kodak400 film. Slightly blurry because Bob snapped this shot quickly as the diamond ring became visible, the camera hadn't quite stopped vibrating after advancing the film. Tom Jacobs' photo of the "edge expedition" group.
September's monthly MAS meeting featured presentations by four members who trekked to various European destinations to view the August 11, 1999 total eclipse. Jane Breun presented a talk and many still photographs of her trip to Turkey. She and her husband spent a total of one month touring Europe, and topped it off with a beautifully clear day for totality, which they observed from the vicinity of Cide. Bob was on the beach, and Jane on a boat about 8 miles out on the Black Sea. The picture below was one of many shared by Jane at the meeting. Tom Jacobs also chose Turkey for his "edge" expedition. Unlike Breun's site, which straddled the center of the path of totality, Jacobs chose a location that skirted the edge of the path, resulting in a shorter duration for totality, but a much enhanced and lengthened experience of edge phenomenon, Bailey's Beads, etc. Jacobs presented his video from the event, showing off the eclipse itself, an audio track of the experience of watchers, and footage of his vacation in the historic cities of Turkey. Gerry Samolyk journeyed to Romania to view the event, his 8th total eclipse. His original plan was to observe from Simeria, but he awoke on the morning of the 11th to clouds and rain. Setting off in his car, and picking up some observers from the Netherlands in the process, they drove for 2 hours and nearly 100 miles in search of clear skies, finally settling for a site just north of Novaci. Joined by a few local farmers, Samolyk observed under beautiful conditions, and captured some great pictures, which were shared with the group via slides. Samolyk spent 2 weeks on his trip, in Poland and Hungary in addition to Romania. Jim Lattis had high hopes for a multiple exposure photographic montage of the eclipse but, unfortunately, got completely clouded and rained out in Stuttgart, Germany. Jim's photographic method required that he recconoiter his site the day before in order to determine the exact position of the sun at the beginning and end of the eclipse. Unfortunately, this also meant that he was tied to that site, rain or shine.
Tom and Jane in the Black Sea after totality. Right: Jane and Bob amidst the ruined columns of the Mausoleum in Halicarnassus, Turkey.
Calendar of Events
October 1 Asteroid Occultation, see website for details
October 5 Madison Lighting Policy meeting 7-9pm at the Wilmar Center, 953 Jennifer St.
October 5 Star Party and equipment demonstration at Eagle Optics in Middleton, 7:00 pm. A representative from Astronomy magazine will be present with a display of their publications. Darrin Stevens from Bushnell will give a talk on the topic "Footsteps on Mars." As soon as it gets dark, Eagle Optics' staff will offer equipment demonstrations and viewing of astronomical sights. Rain date is October 6th. Eagle Optics is located at 2120 W. Greenview Dr., Middleton, 836-6568. The star party will take place in the parking lot in front of the store.
October 8 Regular MAS meeting at Space Place, 1605 S. Park Street, 7:30 pm, topic and speaker TBA.
October 9 Observatory committee meeting 1:00 pm at J.T. Whitney's
October 9 Eclipsing Binary Night at YRS. Gerry Samolyk will bring several of his own telescopes, each set up to observe a particular system (MAS instruments will be available as well). The idea is to look at each system about every 10 minutes, make estimates of magnitudes, and chart a light curve, all in one night. About 12 people attended last year and had a great time.
October 12 Space Place guest speaker: David Liebl, UW-Extension, speaking on light pollution education and abatement efforts.
October 26 Space Place's annual Telescope and Binocular Fair (6-9 pm at Space Place). MAS members are invited to bring their telescopes to exhibit and talk to the public.
October 27 MMSD Observatory grand opening, Memorial High School 6-10 pm. Outdoor star party (weather permitting) and indoor displays and information exhibits. MAS members are invited to bring their telescopes to exhibit and talk to the public.
MMSD Planetarium Public Shows, 6:30 and 7:45 pm. Memorial High School, "More Than Meets the Eye."
November 9 Space Place guest speaker TBA: Topic, Leonid Meteor shower.
November 12 Regular MAS meeting at Space Place, 7:30 pm, Blair Savage, professor of astronomy at the UW Madison is the speaker, topic TBA.
November 13 Observatory committee meeting 1:00 pm at J.T. Whitney's
November 17 MMSD Planetarium Public Shows, 6:30 and 7:45 pm. Memorial High School, "Hairy Stars and Shooting Stars." An exploration of the connection between comets and meteor showers. Join us as we explore the cause of meteor showers, and learn how to enjoy the Leonid Meteor Shower which will be peaking around the night of these programs!
From the Treasurer
MAS warmly welcomes new members Dennis Dettlaff, Chrys Synstegard, and Dr. Goran Hellenkant. All orders for Astronomy and Sky & Telescope magazines, through each company's respective club plan, must be made by the October 1999 club meeting. Please call or see Joe Keyes. I have already received the club order form from Astronomy due to them on October 12th. I expect the form from Sky&Tel to be here shortly. Just a reminder If any member is buying supplies or materials for the Society, please contact the treasurer for the State of WI Tax Exempt Number. This allows the Society to legally buy those items without paying the sales tax.
At the August meeting of the MAS, member Wynn Wacker kicked off a fund- raising initiative for a much needed sanitary facility at the YRS observatory site. Observatory director Tim Ellestad estimates that final installation of such a facility may cost as much as $4,000. Bathroom facilities at YRS are essential, and have been needed for a long time, especially now that we are bringing school groups, cub scouts, etc. to YRS. Wacker presented a generous donation to kick-off the fund and encouraged other members to follow suit, donating whatever they are able toward this cause. Donations to the cause can help defray the cost and avoid depletion of the MAS bank account. Wacker requests only that neither the final facility, nor any of the fixtures within, bear his name. In spite of his admonition, puns were flying fast and furious at the September meeting. If you're interested in making a contribution to this fund, please contact the club treasurer, Joe Keyes.
From the Observatory Director by Tim Ellestad
Work is progressing towards completion on the refinishing of the clubhouse facia and soffits. The efforts have been slowed by a large and stubborn hornet infestation behind the cladding all along the north wall. Multiple efforts have been made toward eradication and we'll be checking for a cessation of hornet activity. Personal schedules have the work currently on pause. MAS member and chief telescope doctor Tom Hall reports a complete recovery for the RA drive on the YRS C11 scope. Tom indicated that he removed about a "pail full" of ladybugs from the drive assembly, making the slow-motion knob functional again. MAS members Ray Zit and Tom Jacobs expediently replaced a warped and twisted structural member from the roll-off building housing the YRS 17 inch Dobsonian. The twisted 4x4 that was replaced had pulled the roll-off house out of square causing the rollers to bind which made opening and closing the scope almost impossible. With the repair now made the building rolls smoothly and easily. The red chart-light in the 17-inch building is now functioning. If you use it, please unplug it when you leave. The outlet inside the 17-inch building had attracted some resident insects which were believed to be the cause of the occasional ground fault that we were having on that circuit breaker. The cover plate on that outlet was replaced with an exterior covered one to keep out insects in the future. Final shutter work on the 16-inch dome is projected to take place in the coming weeks. We are investigating the cost of scaffolding to put a new paint job on the dome, which should be the finishing touch on a long, time-consuming and difficult project. Volunteers will be needed for the painting work. Weeds were beginning to smother the YRS. The MAS responded with resolve and expedience and we purchased a gas-powered weed-wacker. The device has proven to be devastating to almost all noxious invaders and has driven them back to their former frontiers. In that this device can be dangerous if improperly handled, a class providing instruction in its use will be given to all those interested in experiencing this rewarding tool. This instruction is mandatory for use of the machine. The MAS approved a motion that we make it mandatory to use the newly provided red warning lights on the two power pylons next to the six central concrete pads at YRS. These lights reside in the drawer just below the log book. They consist of a short three-conductor extension cord with a red "light cube" outlet tap on the female end. Simply plug the extension cord into one of the outlets on the power pylon. Wrap the cord around the pylon once and fit the hub of the female end of the cord into a white, open, horizontal hook that is installed near the top of the pylon post. This positions the red glow light above the top of the pylon, making it visible from any direction. In the event that all outlets are needed by telescope users, the outlet on the red "light cube" itself may be used. Please refrain from doing this, however, unless absolutely necessary since the additional cord might somewhat obscure the light and repeated use might loosen the red tape on the cube. These units must be returned to the drawer upon leaving the observatory - they are not weatherproof. The approved motion to use these warning lights stipulates that they must be used anytime the observatory is in use.
The Casual Observer by John Rummel
October brings ever shorter days and cooler evenings as fall firmly takes over where summer leaves off. As October opens, Mars is continuing its eastward journey, growing ever dimmer after a spectacular spring and summer. On October 1st Mars is more than 126 million miles away but still fairly bright at 1st magnitude. Having departed Scorpius, Mars starts the month low in the south in the constellation Ophiuchus, and by the 11th, has moved into Sagittarius. Watched with binoculars throughout the month, Mars will march past several bright star clusters. On Friday the 15th, Mars is just 6 degrees below the moon. Directly in between the two solar system objects are two breathtaking deep sky wonders, M20 or the Trifid Nebula, and M8 the Lagoon Nebula. Both are visible as hazy patches in binoculars. On the 27th and 28th, it passes just a degree from the brilliant globular cluster M22. A small telescope is needed to see M22 as anything more than a fuzzy dot. Through a medium sized telescope, it is a brilliant conglomerate of nearly a million stars. Mars is not the real story of October, though. As the month opens, Jupiter and Saturn return with a vengeance to our evening skies. By October 1st, both planets are well up in the eastern sky by 9:30 pm, and after daylight savings time ends, even the kids will have plenty of time to gaze at these giants before bedtime. If Jupiter seems a bit brighter this year, it is. About every 13 months, Earth in its orbit "catches up" with Jupiter and
Jupiter and Io, imaged by Mike McDowell on August 27, 1999 using his C8 SCT and a Quickcam and laptop computer.
passes it in an event called opposition (so-called because at that time Jupiter is opposite the sun in our sky). Because Jupiter's orbit is slightly elongated, once every twelve years its opposition date happens at the same time that the planet is physically as close to us (and the sun) as it can be. This is that "12th year," so Jupiter is just a little bit bigger and brighter this year than usual. Jupiter reaches opposition on October 23, and on that night, will shine at a magnitude of nearly -2.9. Of the naked eye planets, only Venus is routinely brighter than this (almost unbelievably, Mars will shine brighter than this during its opposition in August of 2003). There is no better time to observe Jupiter through a telescope than this month. Nights of steady skies will reveal a stunning array of features on the cloudtops and the continual dance of the four Galilean satellites. Saturn, not nearly as bright as Jupiter, will sit just below and to the left of its brilliant partner in the early evening skies. Saturn will reach opposition next month, and will be the subject of next month's article. Also on the 23rd, the nearly full moon will appear just to the right of Jupiter, with Saturn and the Pleiades to its left. This same lineup, minus the moon, will still dominate the following weekend. So if you're out trick or treating with the kids, take a few minutes for some sidewalk astronomy, and point out some of the wonders of the night sky. The kids will be wowed by your firm grasp of celestial goings-on.
Jovian Moon Eclipses
As fall approaches, Jupiter and Saturn are returning to the evening skies for 1999, and for Jupiter, that means one of the best apparitions in years. Jupiter is a bit closer and brighter this year, and thus favorably placed for close inspection by amateurs and professionals alike. At the MAS meeting August 13 1999, MAS member Wynn Wacker gave a fascinating presentation on three phenomena involving the moons of Jupiter. The four Galilean moons are visible easily from Earth in even a modest telescope or binocular. In fact, if it weren't for the shining brilliance of the planet itself, all four moons would be easy naked eye objects from dark skies. The three phenomena referred to by Wacker are occultations (when the moons pass behind the planet), transits (when the moons pass in front of the planet) and eclipses (when the moons pass into the shadow of Jupiter). Also mentioned were shadow transits (when the shadow of a moon is visible crossing the disk of Jupiter). Most regular observers of Jupiter have witnessed the first two of these phenomenon. In fact, regular Jupiter watchers enjoy planetary observing for just this reason - things change. There are events to observe, as opposed to watching deep sky objects which rarely or never change (with apologies to the variable star and supernova watchers). Jupiter provides a virtual smorgasbord of events to watch. Of the three events, eclipses are by far the most scientifically interesting, because the timing of the precise disappearances and reappearances of the moons can be used to calculate orbital elements of the moons. For this reason, precise timings of the Galilean moon eclipses are sought by the Association of Lunar and Planetary Observers (ALPO). Timing of transits and occultations cannot be made as precisely as eclipses, so these timings are not collected by ALPO. Jupiter, of course, casts a significant shadow into space. When a Galilean moon passes behind the planet, it most often passes through this shadow, and completely disappears from view even though it has not been occulted by the Jovian disk. Depending on Jupiter's position relative to the Earth and the sun, these eclipses can be easily observed and timed with telescopes as small as 2 inches of aperture. The eclipse events are best observed when Jupiter is near quadrature (90 degrees east or west of the sun). Near quadrature, Jupiter's shadow forms a sufficiently steep angle from the planet that the outer Galilean moons can actually be observed entering and exiting the shadow on the same side of the planet (prior to occultation before opposition, after occultation after opposition). The closer to opposition date (when Jupiter is opposite the sun in the sky), the closer these eclipses happen to the disk of Jupiter, making them harder to observe accurately. For more info on the observing and timing of Galilean satellite eclipses, Wacker recommends visiting the ALPO website at: http://www.lpl.arizona.edu/alpo/
Monona Terrace Public Event
On Friday September 17, MAS members set up telescopes on the roof of Monona Terrace and hosted a "moon party" for an estimated crowd of 1,000 to 1,500 people. The moon was the primary target of the night, but by 9:30, Jupiter was high enough above Lake Monona that many telescopes were tasked to give Joe and Jane public their first look at the largest planet. Look for a full report with pictures in the next issue of Capitol Skies.
In recent months, considerable debate has emerged within the MAS on matters related to upkeep of the facilities at the Yanna Research Station. Several members conducted their own study and submitted a report to the board at the May meeting describing their concerns. In the words of one MAS member, "there has been lively and at times emotional debate surrounding the report." Discussions at the September meeting make it clear that a majority of MAS members agree that the issues raised are important and should be addressed, and the board has agreed to answer the questions raised and address financial concerns as part of the budget process to take place over the next two months. In the meantime, several letters related to the debate have been submitted for publication in this newsletter. After carefully considering the issues involved, I have decided not to publish them, since their inclusion might only cause further hard feelings, without contributing to the positive resolution of the important matters at stake. I encourage the parties concerned to pursue other methods of making their voices heard, including participation in the public meetings of the MAS. -ed.
Deep Sky Notebook: Cassiopeia
By Tom Brissette
In this issue we take a tour through the wonderful starfields of the milky way in Cassiopeia. Object type abbreviations: gx: galaxy; oc: open cluster; gc: globular cluster; pn: planetary nebula; en: emission nebula; rn: reflection nebula; snr: supernova remnant; ds: double star; vs: variable star
oc M103 Cas 01h 33m 22s +60deg 39' 30" Size: 6' Mag: 7.4 Ura 37 Distance: 8,000 l.y. Diameter: 14 l.y.
12" f/10: Compact cluster, quite nice. 130x shows main body as a roughly circular patch of mod. faint stars contained within an elongated triangle of 3 bright stars pointed N. N apex star is orange and is the brightest. SE apex star is next brightest; SW star is faintest of the three. On E edge is a bright red star, forming a wide pair with another bright star to the south. S edge of triangle is empty of stars, except for two mod. faint ones on SE side. Small sprinkling of faint stars outside E edge.
oc M52 Cas 23h 24m 18s +61deg 35' 00" Size: 12' Mag: 6.9 Ura 35 Distance: 7,000 l.y. Diameter: 26 l.y.
12" f/10: Nice cluster, well-defined but not particularly bright. 130x shows cluster to consist of two main sections: a large near-square shape containing the bulk of the stars, and an elongated clump to the south, with a near-empty gap between the two. The N section has a mag 8 orange star in the SW corner, a mag 10 star in near-center, and a faint easy double in the SE corner. Some other mod-faint stars outline the square, and dozens of faint stars are scattered about it. The south clump has a mod-faint star on the W end; rest of the stars are faint, not as many as in the north section. Extending from the W side of north section to the SW is a ragged line of some faint stars.
oc NGC 103 Cas 00h 25m 18s +61deg 19' 18" Size: 5' Mag: 9.8 Ura 15
12" f/10: 130x shows a compact V-shape group of some faint and many very faint stars. Brightest star is at apex of the "V"; western arm has most of the stars, along with some haze. Eastern arm consists of a few faint stars in a string.
oc NGC 457 Cas 01h 19m 33s +58deg 17' 24" Size: 13' Mag: 6.4 Ura 36
12" f/10: Nice cluster at 130x. Main body is a slightly squashed square shape, with mag 5.7 Phi Cas just off the E side. N and W sides of square marked by three bright stars; S and E sides by two. NE corner is marked by a mag 9 red star (V466 Cas). In center of body are two elongated clumps of mod bright and mod faint stars. Many faint stars scattered in and around cluster, especially in SW corner.
oc NGC 7789 Cas 23h 57m 0s +56deg 43' 0" Size: 15' Mag: 6.7 Ura 35
12" f/10: Very nice cluster, well-defined and quite rich. At 130x, main body is in eastern half of cluster; west side has the brightest star, a mag 8.3 red star, but otherwise only has a few small clumps of faint stars. Main body is irregular-round, and has a clumpy appearance. On the W side of main body is a compact triangle of mag 10-11 stars; more mag 10-11 stars line the E side. Bulk of main body is comprised of many, many dozens of faint and very faint stars, organized into clumps. A few short lines of stragglers extend from the south side to the S.
oc NGC 7790 Cas 23h 58m 24s +61deg 12' 0s Size: 17' Mag: 8.5 Ura 15
12" f/10: Listed as 17' wide, but at 130x cluster is a compact elongated group of mod-faint and faint stars located 14' NE of a mag 6 star and 24' W of a mag 5.6 star. Body is organized into a pentagon of three mag 11 and two mag 12 stars on the west end, and a tight clump of faint stars on the east. Northern two stars of pentagon are variables CE Cas (on the west) and CF Cas (on the east). A mag 10 star is SE of the body. An arc of a few very faint stars curves from the E end.
oc NGC 129 Cas 00h 29m 54s +60deg 13' 0s Size: 21' Mag: 6.5 Ura 35
12" f/10: At 130x, a rather ragged, not well-defined cluster, loose but rich. Not well separated from the starfield to the north, the relatively star-poor regions on the other sides make it appear like a peninsula. A mag 5.9 star just to the S is not part of the cluster. Main body looks like a rough "V" pointed south. At the tip of the "V" is a triangle of mag 9 stars: one at the S tip, one marking the E arm of the V, and one (Cepheid variable DL Cas, mag 8.63-9.26, 8 days) marking the W arm. E arm extends to a mag 9.4 star; W arm to two mag 10-11 stars. A string of faint stars extends from the E arm to the SE. The W arm is thicker than the E arm, with a group of mag 10-11 stars, plus some fainter ones, at the N end. More faint stars fill out the W side of the cluster. In the gap of the "V" is a tiny string of very faint stars.
oc NGC 366 Cas 01h 06m 27s +62deg 13' 42" Size: 3' Mag: -- Ura 16
12" f/10: Located in a small hole of the milky way, 130x shows this cluster as a tiny arc of four stars: a mag 9.6 star at the S end, a mag 10.8 at the N, and a faint double in between; a few very faint stars are sprinkled about the arc.
oc NGC 381 Cas 01h 08m 18s +61deg 35' 0s Size: 6' Mag: 9.3 Ura 16
12" f/10: A thin halo of mostly empty space separates this small, but quite nice, cluster from the milky way. 130x shows it to be a mod. concentrated, mostly round patch of some mod faint and and many faint stars. A mag 10 star is on the north side; two mag 11-12 stars to the SW and SE form a triangle with it. South of the mag 10 star are most of the faint and very faint stars; a few faint strings extend from the bright star to the N, W and E.
gx NGC 185 Cas 00h 38m 57s +48deg 20' 14" Size: 11.9'x10.1' Mag: 10.1 Ura 60
12" f/10: One of the two (along with NGC 147) distant satellite galaxies of the Andromeda Galaxy. At 130x, appears as a very faint but visible, very low surface brightness round diffuse patch. Brightens to a large round core, about 50% of the halo diameter. Core not much brighter than halo; looks like an unresolved globular cluster.
Deep Sky Challenge
Switching to a very diiferent part of the sky for this issue's Challenge, I have an extremely hard globular cluster in Aquarius, and a very faint galaxy way down in Sculptor. Good luck!
gc NGC 7492 Aqr 23h 08m 27s -15deg 36' 42" Size: 4.2' Mag: 11.2 Ura 303
8" f/6: Not visible. 11" f/6.3: Just barely visible at 146x as a very faint hazy spot using averted vision and moving the scope, though haven't confirmed this. 16" f/19: 172x shows a very indeterminate glow.
gx NGC 7755 Scl 23h 47m 51s -30deg 31' 10" Size: 3.8'x 2.8' Mag: 12.6 Ura 350
At -31 degrees dec, very low from YRS. 8" f/6: Indeterminate very faint spot; invisible? 17" f/4.5: 160x shows a tiny round halo, faint, with a brighter, almost star-like core.
Good Neighbor Lighting Group Organizes in Madison
by Kurt Meyer
Karolyn Beebe didn't realize what she was missing until the lens fell out of the cobra-head streetlight in front of her house. Suddenly, the light was fully shielded, and no longer shone into her room at night. Karolyn liked it so much that way, she hoped the City wouldn't find out and try to fix it. When they finally did, she asked the City not to fix it, but instead to shut off the light. When the City put up objectionable lights on the Yahara River bridge and Marquette School in her neighborhood, Karolyn organized her neighbors to ask the City to reduce the glare of the lights. Along the way, Karolyn read up on lighting issues, developed a list of like-minded people (she got my address when we testified a couple years ago at a Legislature hearing on a proposed state lighting bill), joined the International Dark-Sky Association, wrote letters to editors, and finally this March reserved a room at the Wil-Mar center and put out the word. About fifteen people showed up for the meeting, and what impressed me most about it was that only three of us were astronomers. The rest were people whose home life was in one way or another affected by bad lights. Some attendees lived in the country and had to contend with new obnoxious lights on nearby businesses, others lived in the city and had unwelcome lights glaring in their windows or yards. The group was like a bunch of long-lost siblings who had suddenly found each other. We had a great and wide-ranging discussion. Since then, we've come to call ourselves the Good Neighbor Lighting Group. We meet monthly at the Wil-Mar center. We've heard from guests like Ruth Miller of Madison Gas & Electric, and Alderperson Judy Olson. Largely through Karolyn's persistence, excellent articles have appeared in local papers. As a result of one of them, Karolyn and I were even invited to talk about dark-sky issues for a few minutes with the host of the morning radio show on Y-105 FM. The meetings are informal, some months only three or four people are there, but it's a good opportunity to compare notes, educate ourselves, and be morally supported. One member of the group, Dave Liebl of UW-Extension, is working to establish a unique dark-sky preserve around Lake Wingra. Dave has lined up support from the Arboretum and the University, and the project has received favorable coverage in Madison newspapers. Members of the group are also working with MG&E to establish a simple demonstration installation, possibly replacing one or more fixtures in Orton Park with good, shielded versions. At the meetings, there is lots of discussion about what we can do as a group. In my view, the group can be useful on two fronts: 'macro' and 'micro.' At the macro level, we can do things like demonstration projects, letters to the editor, public education, and the like, to generally raise public consciousness of dark-sky issues. At the micro level, we can develop a store of knowledge, techniques, and contacts to empower individuals to fix bad lighting situations that affect them personally such as that unshielded 175-watt mercury-vapor light bomb shining in your bedroom window, keeping you awake at night. As of this writing, I'm not sure when the Good Neighbor group will meet after Septemberprevious meetings have been 7:00 pm, second Tuesday of the month at Wil-Mar (953 Jenifer Street, Madison), but they might move to the third Tuesday. Please feel free to call me (Kurt Meyer) at 231-2622 if you are interested in attending.
When I joined the Madison Astronomical Society several years ago I was very pleased to find that the Yanna Research Station existed. I had visions about adding to the resources there so as to make it a more important and useful asset. This vision was partly fulfilled with the donation of an additional observatory over two years ago. It has become apparent in discussions with members over the past 6 months that there is little interest in adding more facilities at the Station. There is a growing feeling that the current facilities are all that the Society is in a financial position to maintain and operate at this time. I feel it would not be fair to burden the Society with additional facilities, costs and obligations. Thus, I have decided to abandon the plans I had for additional projects at the Station. I trust this statement will terminate rumors and discussion about this matter.
R. A. Greiner
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